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American National Standards Institute


An electrochemical device that can store electrical energy by converting it to chemical energy and by converting it back again. See also secondary battery.


Permanent loss of capacity, which occurs as a result of repeated use or agreement.

Alkaline-manganese battery

This is a particularly powerful type of battery that is also free of mercury and cadmium. The alkali-manganese battery is a galvanic element and this battery type is one of the most important electronic energy saving. The alkali-manganese batteries have higher capacity and longer shelf life compared to zinc-carbon batteries.

Alkaline batteries tend to expire with time. This potassium hydroxide deposits as a white, crystalline substance with corrosive effect form outside on the battery. A battery in a device runs out, potassium hydroxide can penetrate into the appliance and can corrode metallic components.

Ampere [A]

Base unit of electric current.

Ampere hour [Ah]

Product of the current (measured in amperes) and the length of time (in hours) of the current flow. The amount of electricity (capacity) of a battery or cell is specified in amp-hours usually. The short name is Ah.


Positive electrode, when in aqueous solution, oxidation processes take place, i.e. that are anions (negatively charged ions) unload (loss of electron). In secondary cell, each of the two electrodes can be to the anode, depending on the direction of current flow. The negative electrode is the anode for discharge.



The "Battery" refers to an interconnection of multiple similar galvanic cells or items to a functional unit in electrical engineering. Initially it consisted of non-rechargeable primary cells; Meanwhile, there are also rechargeable secondary cells on the market. However, the speech of batteries, but batteries - short battery is no longer.

A battery is an electrochemical energy storage device and a power converter in one. The stored chemical energy is converted to the discharge by the electrochemical redox reaction into electrical energy. An electric consumers independent from the mains can use this energy. She can be used but also by a mains-dependent consumers as a bridge for possible power outages to ensure an uninterruptible power supply.

The performance of a battery is the product of discharge current and discharge voltage and is specified in Watts (W).

Battery Pack

Specially shaped nickel-metal hydride batteries for camcorders, mobile and cordless phones, and laptops.



Chemical element (CD), is one of the heavy metals. Cadmium and cadmium oxide cadmium hydroxide are used in battery technology in the cadmium electrode of nickel-cadmium batteries and normal elements.


The available amount of electricity a battery or cell, measured in ampere-hours. The capacity depends on the temperature of the battery and the discharge current. Therefore, even an indication of discharge current and temperature must be in addition to the capacity (E.g. cold crank capacity in seconds at low-temperature test current and -18 ° C).

Car battery

Car battery - battery, also called - it is an accumulator, which supplies electricity to the starter of an internal combustion engine. A car battery is used for example in motor vehicles, an aircraft gas turbines or power generation units.

However, a battery is called rather as a supplier of energy for the propulsion of vehicles traction battery. Traction batteries are can be found in hybrid or electric cars.

In the motor vehicle the car battery next to the power supply of the Starter also has the task, while light machine is running too slow or not, to ensure the remaining power in the vehicle. This task is becoming increasingly important especially with the ever-growing convenience functions in the cars. When running the internal combustion engine, the alternator recharges the car battery.

The difference between Starter batteries for cars and trucks especially in the capacity and thus also in the dimensions and the weight. Also, voltage usually 12 volts and that the truck 24 Volt is the car.


In electrochemistry, the term is cathode for the electrode of the reduction processes take place so the electrons are absorbed.

In a cell that serves as a power source, so in a galvanic element, the cathode is positively charged. The electrode reactions can reverse itself, with rechargeable batteries, by applying an external voltage, allowing the battery recharge.

The cathode consists of lead oxide in simple lead-acid batteries. This lead oxide reacts with sulfuric acid, which serves as the electrolyte, under absorption of electrons to lead sulfate. The electrons come from the anode. There lead reacts with sulfuric acid, electron emitting also to lead sulfate. This flow of electrons creates the power output. The sulfuric acid is during this process; the spent sulfuric acid gives inference on the charge state of the battery.


Smallest unit of a battery consisting of positive and negative electrodes, a separator and electrolyte. It stores electrical energy and thus forms the basic building block of a battery if inserted into a container and equipped with electrical connections. The capacity of the cell is determined by their size, however, the cell voltage is a function of basic electrochemistry of the element. See also electrochemical element.


Special chargers are required for rechargeable batteries, the so-called accumulators. Especially the modern Chargers can ensure that the charging status of the batteries is optimal, even in relation to the charge conservation, which is especially important for example in car batteries during the winter months.


Battery chargers are equipped with a charge control, temperature monitoring and a shut-off mechanism, which protect the battery against overload or overheating. Special chargers are required for certain batteries, such as the re combine production batteries.

Current limit

The highest power consumption, under which the special constant current consumption battery works sufficiently. The performance is based on the consumption rate, which reduces the operating voltage to 1.1 volts.


Deep discharge

Power is found to almost complete exhaustion of the capacity of a battery label deep discharge. This decreases the voltage in the battery under the final discharge voltage. This condition can permanently damage a battery or an accumulator, and should therefore preferably be avoided.

However, a discharge by the self discharge may occur. Non spillable types of primary cells the deep discharge may cause an electrolyte leakage which represents a risk for the equipment in which the batteries are due to corrosion.


Diffusion is a physical process in which it comes to a uniform distribution of particles and thus the complete mixing of two or more substances.

The basis of diffusion is the thermal motion of particles, where it can be the particles to molecules, atoms, or carrier. The distribution is uneven, the static particles move more from areas of high concentration in areas with lower particle density and concentration than vice versa, respectively. What has resulted in net causes a macroscopic metabolism. Usually refers to these net transport of particle diffusion.

Diffusion does reduce concentration differences in a locked room until the complete mixing of substances.

A good experiment to illustrate the spread by diffusion is the following: comes in lukewarm water drops of ink, is now neither stirred the water, yet the water container is shaken. The color of the ink has yet evenly distributed after some time in the water.


Removal of electrical power from a battery, in which chemical energy is converted into electrical.


The durability of batteries, even if they are not in operation, is unfortunately limited. However, she is depending on the type and the chemical system. Also may vary depending on the manufacturer the imprinted expiry date for the same battery type vary.


Depending on the size batteries between 4 are alkaline and 7 year shelf life, with alkaline durability in the cut button cells at 3 years.

Batteries are lithium, however, a fairly long shelf life, it is even 15 years 10 to part. Also the lithium button cells have a higher durability than the alkaline button cells. It is at 5 and 10 years depending on the manufacturer.

The shelf life of silver oxide button cells, we know it rather than watch batteries, in the cut is 3 years. In the field of watch batteries, the manufacturer Duracell unfortunately completely omitted on specifying an expiration date.

In the disabled state, button cells, which are used in hearing aids, about 3 to 4 years old-stable are zinc-air. These are but once activated, they should be consumed quickly.


E.A.N. Code

European Article Number

Electrical performance

Generally, it gives the work or the energy defined as performance, which will be implemented in a certain time. As the power rating of a battery the amount of electrical energy is, which can be removed per time unit from you.

The electrical power is the product of charging current and charging output and is used to specify Watts in the unit. Calculate the electrical power is P so the product of the voltage U and 1 Watt is the current intensity I: p. the unit of electrical power.


The Electrode or the plate consists of a carrier material (E.g. lead antimony alloy or lead calcium alloy) and of the active mass, where the active mass is the actual energy storage.


The work, expressed in Watt hours, which can be emitted under specified conditions of discharge of a battery.



Fading stands for the unwanted fading of an effect. In electrical engineering, fading is induced voltages of the signal strength in radio transmissions by interference or shading.

The cause is this shadowing, the radio signal out of phase reaching the receiving antenna in different ways by reflection or refraction on terrestrial objects, so mountains, buildings or similar, or the ionosphere.

Occurring through the superimposition of different propagation phenomena of terrestrial objects fading bears the names of slow, long-term or log normal fading. Fading, which occurs due to the used frequency is called fast, short-term or Rayleigh-fading and is caused by a multipath reception or a double effect.

To maintain the strength of communication, the fading by so-called fading can be compensated mitigation techniques (FMT).



Heavy duty (lead-acid batteries)

This type of battery is designed for high cycle stability and vibration resistance and finds especially in the commercial vehicle, construction and agricultural machinery sector application.


Used due to their low internal resistance and its high power handling capability for multi function watches such as digital watches with additional functions such as wake-up call and lighting.



International Electrochemical Commission.

Industrial battery

Are emergency power and UPS systems for the supply of large electrical consumers such as forklift trucks.

Internal resistance

The internal resistance means the inner resistance of electronic or electrical device.

At a battery voltage under load measured, reflected a significant voltage drop. However, tension can only drop a resistance. The battery itself can be so regard as a resistance which is upstream to the consumer and to the residual voltage drops. Consumer battery, making a voltage ladder so.

As internal resistance, the resistance to call, the battery itself is now. That is so, the larger the load of a battery, the faster the voltage collapses and the less current can flow. It formulated the other way around then was: the smaller the resistance, the slower breaks the voltage together and the more current can flow.




Lithium battery

Lithium batteries are primary batteries, whose Zellen consist of a combination of lithium and an electrolyte (sulphur dioxide or thionyl chloride solution). Lithium batteries have a 3-10 times higher energy density (3.86 AHG) than other primary battery systems. Also, lithium cells have a long service life up to the part more than 12 years, a low self-discharge rate (3 per year, with lithium-manganese dioxide approx. 1), exhibit a stable operating voltage during use and suitable for use under extreme conditions. There are lithium batteries in cylindrical designs, as flat and button cells. When the bobbin construction the cathode has the shape of a cylinder. The anode is rolled from the inside against the wall of the battery Cup. This means that accidental short circuit the currents do not exceed the limit. The anode on the Cup bottom is pressed on the flat cell construction. The cathode has a shape of a disc, it is located above the anode and is separated by a separator. It offers the same structural safety as the bobbin construction. The coin cell is similar, but has a flared plastic seal in contrast to the flat cell. All lithium batteries use metallic lithium as anode. They differ however in the cathode material and the electrolyte, so that they have different voltages depending on the type.


Suitable especially for analog watches and simple digital watches. They offer high leakage protection and can eat no multi function watches but due to its high internal resistance.


Maintenance-free batteries

Maintenance-free batteries are a technological evolution of the conventional lead-acid accumulators. Batteries are considered "maintenance-free" then, if under normal circumstances, the refilling of distilled water is not necessary.

Maintenance-free, sealed MF batteries, the so-called valve regulated lead acid battery (VRLA batteries) are available to the market for quite some time. "MF" look for "Maintenance free" so "maintenance-free". However it involves a slightly deceptive promise, because even these batteries must be occasionally removed and loaded. The "maintenance-free" refers first and foremost ensure that no distilled water must be refilled because from these batteries, very little will disappear.

The benefits of maintenance-free batteries are: • Check and refill of the electrolyte is eliminated • Eliminates fill up with distilled water • Lighter and smaller design The disadvantages, however, are as follows: • Via the degassing valve leakage when excessive load excess gas • Because the amount of liquid does not replace, sustained damage to the battery is possible

Memory effect

The capacity loss that occurs when different battery types, very frequently in nickel-cadmium batteries with sintered electrodes, called a "Memory effect".

It makes it seem that the battery "remembers the energy need" and the passage of time is the amount of energy required for the previous load operations makes available, instead of the original. Electrically, this effect due to a voltage drop is noticeable. This voltage drop has the consequence that the usable capacity of the batteries is reduced because consumers require a minimum voltage. The minimum cell voltage is too low, the battery is unusable, although he could deliver actually continue to electric power.

Probably can be attributed the memory effect on two processes: on the formation of crystals. Cadmium microcrystals formed third recharging of NI CD batteries. A discharge only takes up to a certain, held across the loading operations, constant level, favours the formation of larger crystals of micro-crystals in areas not discharged. Since larger crystals in comparison to smaller at the same mass but can present a smaller surface area, react this unloading bad and the tension breaks.

On the other hand, the memory effect on the recrystallization can be attributed. The battery level is ignored by older technologies. They overcharge a battery discharged only partly because they download over a fixed period of time, resulting in a recrystallization of CD electrode. The recrystallization is connected because of the position of the cadmium in the electrochemical electrochemical series with a lower output voltage and thus reduced capacity.

Metal hydride

An intermetallic connection or alloy, in which hydrogen has been absorbed; also, the negative electrode in a nickel-hydride battery.



NiCd battery is a nickel-cadmium battery. These batteries are rechargeable and are among the secondary battery. The electrolyte during charging, in contrast to the electrolyte in lead-acid batteries, remains unchanged.

Cadmium containing batteries are allowed since the battery Act 2009 no longer placed on the market be, because these are toxic and pose a danger to the environment. However, the law allows for exceptions: cadmium containing batteries are still allowed in alarm and emergency systems, medical equipment, electric and cordless electrical appliances.

Rechargeable batteries with lithium and nickel-metal hydride batteries are a good substitute for NiCd batteries, since these are environmentally friendly and have a higher energy density.



Distribution of electrons due to the active mass of the cell to the external circuit. Discharging cadmium at the negative electrode of nickel-cadmium cell or lead sponge is oxidized at the negative electrode of lead cell.



Electrical term, of the relative charge or voltage between the positive and negative electrode.


The movement of electrical charge carriers in an electric field. Only DC exists in battery technology.

Primary cell

A primary cell (primary cell) is a combination of a noble and non-noble metal. A primary cell is to produce electricity directly in the situation without bias. However, the electrical operations who run this are irreversible, so that cells are not rechargeable.

Primary cells are therefore galvanic elements that can not recharge. They provide a certain amount of charge, so a certain power over a certain period of time. The amount of this charge is referred to as capacity and depends on factors such as size, electrolytes, and metals in the primary cell.

During the discharge process, the material of the negative pole of a primary cell dissolves. This has resulted in that the electrolyte from escaping after a certain time from the cell. The electrolyte is corrosive liquid that can cause damage to the environment of primary cell, such as the battery and the contacts, one. Empty cells should therefore immediately be removed from the device and the device for a longer period of time is not used, it is advisable to remove the batteries.



Round cell

Round cell, in contrast to the prismatic cell


Secondary battery

Also secondary cell or the secondary battery is a rechargeable battery. It is to see so as opposed to the primary cell. All standard batteries are secondary cells.

Secondary cells can be as primary cells, distinguished according to the materials used. There is, for example, lithium batteries, lead-acid batteries or nickel-cadmium batteries. When choosing a battery is sure that this is suitable for the respective field of application.

Self discharge

Discharges a battery or an accumulator, without that this is connected to a consumer, it's called self-discharge. Generally internal short-circuits or side reactions are responsible for this self discharge, also play a role in the temperature, the storage time and the electrochemical systems in the battery. To some degree, subject to each battery of a self-discharge.

Silver oxide-zinc cells

Silver oxide-zinc cells are primary cells that are in the form of batteries on the market. The negative pole of silver oxide-zinc cell consists of zinc powder which is oxidized in the course of the discharge. The positive is composed of silver(i) is reduced when discharging to elemental silver. Dilute potassium hydroxide is used as an electrolyte. The nominal voltage of such a cell is around 1.55 V.





Unit of measurement for electrical voltage. Refer V. Named after the Italian physicist and physician Count Alessandro Volta (1745-1827).





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